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Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Nov;18(11):e536-e545. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000001328.

Factors Associated With Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Conditions in Six U.S. Hospitals: A Nested Case-Control Study.

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1Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA. 2Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA. 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA. 4Department of Neonatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. 5Section of Neonatology, Children's Hospital at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH. 6Department of Pediatrics, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH. 7Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. 8Department of Patient Safety, Intermountain Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT. 9Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Rush University Medical Center, Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL. 10Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. 11Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.



A newly proposed surveillance definition for ventilator-associated conditions among neonatal and pediatric patients has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality among ventilated patients in cardiac ICU, neonatal ICU, and PICU. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with pediatric ventilator-associated conditions.


Retrospective cohort.


Six U.S. hospitals PATIENTS:: Children less than or equal to 18 years old ventilated for greater than or equal to 1 day.




We identified children with pediatric ventilator-associated conditions and matched them to children without ventilator-associated conditions. Medical records were reviewed for comorbidities and acute care factors. We used bivariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models to identify factors associated with ventilator-associated conditions. We studied 192 pairs of ventilator-associated conditions cases and matched controls (113 in the PICU and cardiac ICU combined; 79 in the neonatal ICU). In the PICU/cardiac ICU, potential risk factors for ventilator-associated conditions included neuromuscular blockade (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.08-4.87), positive fluid balance (highest quartile compared with the lowest, odds ratio, 7.76; 95% CI, 2.10-28.6), and blood product use (odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.70-3.28). Weaning from sedation (i.e., decreasing sedation) or interruption of sedation may be protective (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18-1.11). In the neonatal ICU, potential risk factors included blood product use (odds ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.02-8.78), neuromuscular blockade use (odds ratio, 3.96; 95% CI, 0.93-16.9), and recent surgical procedures (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 0.77-6.28). Weaning or interrupting sedation was protective (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.79).


In mechanically ventilated neonates and children, we identified several possible risk factors associated with ventilator-associated conditions. Next steps include studying propensity-matched cohorts and prospectively testing whether changes in sedation management, transfusion thresholds, and fluid management can decrease pediatric ventilator-associated conditions rates and improve patient outcomes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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