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Brain Struct Funct. 2018 Mar;223(2):669-685. doi: 10.1007/s00429-017-1509-9. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

The mediating role of cortical thickness and gray matter volume on sleep slow-wave activity during adolescence.

Author information

1
Centre for Health Sciences, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA.
2
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
3
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
4
Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
5
Centre for Health Sciences, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA. fiona.baker@sri.com.
6
Brain Function Research Group, School of Physiology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. fiona.baker@sri.com.

Abstract

During the course of adolescence, reductions occur in cortical thickness and gray matter (GM) volume, along with a 65% reduction in slow-wave (delta) activity during sleep (SWA) but empirical data linking these structural brain and functional sleep differences, is lacking. Here, we investigated specifically whether age-related differences in cortical thickness and GM volume and cortical thickness accounted for the typical age-related difference in slow-wave (delta) activity (SWA) during sleep. 132 healthy participants (age 12-21 years) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence study were included in this cross-sectional analysis of baseline polysomnographic, electroencephalographic, and magnetic resonance imaging data. By applying mediation models, we identified a large, direct effect of age on SWA in adolescents, which explained 45% of the variance in ultra-SWA (0.3-1 Hz) and 52% of the variance in delta-SWA (1 to <4 Hz), where SWA was lower in older adolescents, as has been reported previously. In addition, we provide evidence that the structure of several, predominantly frontal, and parietal brain regions, partially mediated this direct age effect, models including measures of brain structure explained an additional 3-9% of the variance in ultra-SWA and 4-5% of the variance in delta-SWA, with no differences between sexes. Replacing age with pubertal status in models produced similar results. As reductions in GM volume and cortical thickness likely indicate synaptic pruning and myelination, these results suggest that diminished SWA in older, more mature adolescents may largely be driven by such processes within a number of frontal and parietal brain regions.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescence; Cortical development; Sleep; Slow-wave activity

PMID:
28913599
PMCID:
PMC5828920
DOI:
10.1007/s00429-017-1509-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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