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Toxicol In Vitro. 2017 Dec;45(Pt 3):278-286. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2017.09.010. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Moving forward in carcinogenicity assessment: Report of an EURL ECVAM/ESTIV workshop.

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European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), Ispra, (VA), Italy. Electronic address:
European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), Ispra, (VA), Italy.
Monographs Programme, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM), Bonn, Germany.
Silent Spring Institute, Newton, United States.
Centre for Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Environmental Protection and Health Prevention Agency, Emilia Romagna Region, Italy.
Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Division of Molecular and Computational Toxicology, Amsterdam Institute for Molecules, Medicines and Systems, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


There is an increased need to develop novel alternative approaches to the two-year rodent bioassay for the carcinogenicity assessment of substances where the rodent bioassay is still a basic requirement, as well as for those substances where animal use is banned or limited or where information gaps are identified within legislation. The current progress in this area was addressed in a EURL ECVAM- ESTIV workshop held in October 2016, in Juan les Pins. A number of initiatives were presented and discussed, including data-driven, technology-driven and pathway-driven approaches. Despite a seemingly diverse range of strategic developments, commonalities are emerging. For example, providing insight into carcinogenicity mechanisms is becoming an increasingly appreciated aspect of hazard assessment and is suggested to be the best strategy to drive new developments. Thus, now more than ever, there is a need to combine and focus efforts towards the integration of available information between sectors. Such cross-sectorial harmonisation will aid in building confidence in new approach methods leading to increased implementation and thus a decreased necessity for the two-year rodent bioassay.


Alternative methods; CTA; Cancer hallmarks; Carcinogenicity; Mechanisms; Rodent bioassay; Toxicogenomics

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