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J Food Drug Anal. 2017 Jul;25(3):637-653. doi: 10.1016/j.jfda.2016.07.006. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

Time course effects of fermentation on fatty acid and volatile compound profiles of Cheonggukjang using new soybean cultivars.

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Department of Food Science, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju, Republic of Korea.
Department of Functional Crop, National Institute of Crop Science, Miryang, Republic of Korea.
School of Human Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Food Science, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:


In this study, we investigated the effects of the potential probiotic Bacillus subtilis CSY191 on the fatty acid profiles of Cheonggukjang, a fermented soybean paste, prepared using new Korean brown soybean cultivars, protein-rich cultivar (Saedanbaek), and oil-rich cultivar (Neulchan). Twelve fatty acids were identified in the sample set-myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, vaccenic, linoleic, α-linolenic, arachidic, gondoic, behenic, and lignoceric acids-yet, no specific changes driven by fermentation were noted in the fatty acid profiles. To further explore the effects of fermentation of B. subtilis CSY191, complete profiles of volatiles were monitored. In total, 121, 136, and 127 volatile compounds were detected in the Saedanbaek, Daewon (control cultivar), and Neulchan samples, respectively. Interestingly, the content of pyrazines-compounds responsible for pungent and unpleasant Cheonggukjang flavors-was significantly higher in Neulchan compared to that in Saedanbaek. Although the fermentation period was not a strong factor affecting the observed changes in fatty acid profiles, we noted that profiles of volatiles in Cheonggukjang changed significantly over time, and different cultivars represented specific volatile profiles. Thus, further sensory evaluation might be needed to determine if such differences influence consumers' preferences. Furthermore, additional studies to elucidate the associations between B. subtilis CSY191 fermentation and other nutritional components (e.g., amino acids) and their health-promoting potential are warranted.


Cheonggukjang; fatty acids; fermentation; soybean cultivar; volatile compounds

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