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J Food Drug Anal. 2017 Jan;25(1):162-175. doi: 10.1016/j.jfda.2016.10.024. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

Phenolic compounds and biological activities of small-size citrus: Kumquat and calamondin.

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Department of Food Science, National Ilan University, Ilan, Taiwan. Electronic address:
Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Electronic address:


Kumquat and calamondin are two small-size citrus fruits. Owing to their health benefits, they are traditionally used as folk medicine in Asian countries. However, the research on flavonoids and biological activities of kumquat and calamondin have received less attention. This review summarizes the reported quantitative and qualitative data of phenolic compositions in these two fruits. Effects of maturity, harvest time, various solvent extractions and heat treatment of phenolic compositions, and bioactivities were discussed; distributions of the forms of phenolic compounds existing in kumquat and calamondin were also summarized. Furthermore, biological activities, including antioxidant, antityrosinase, antimicrobial, antitumor, and antimetabolic disorder effects, have also been discussed. Effective phenolic components were proposed for a certain bioactivity. It was found that C-glycoside flavonoids are dominant phenolic compounds in kumquat and calamondin, unlike in other citrus fruits. Up to now, biological activities and chemical characteristics of C-glycoside flavonoids in kumquat and calamondin are largely unknown.


biological activity; calamondin; kumquat; phenolic compositions

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