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J Infect Dis. 2017 Aug 15;216(suppl_3):S445-S451. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix131.

Multidrug-Resistant Candida: Epidemiology, Molecular Mechanisms, and Treatment.

Author information

1
Unit of Mycology, Statens Serum Institut.
2
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet.
3
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
Division of Infectious Diseases, San Antonio Center for Medical Mycology, UT Health San Antonio, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System.

Abstract

Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients. Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites of infection/colonization, drug sequestration in the biofilm matrix, and, in the setting of outbreaks, suboptimal infection control. Moreover, recent research suggests that DNA mismatch repair gene mutations may facilitate acquisition of resistance mutations in C. glabrata specifically. Diagnosis of antifungal-resistant Candida infections is critical to the successful management of patients with these infections. Reduction of unnecessary use of antifungals via antifungal stewardship is critical to limit multidrug resistance emergence.

KEYWORDS:

Candida; Candida C. auris; Candida glabrate; amphotericin B; azole; echinocandin; fluconazole; multidrug resistance

PMID:
28911043
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jix131
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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