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J Toxicol Sci. 2017;42(5):589-596. doi: 10.2131/jts.42.589.

Assessment of amiodarone-induced phospholipidosis in chimeric mice with a humanized liver.

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Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University.
R&D Dept., PhoenixBio, Co., Ltd.
Liver Research Project Center, Hiroshima University.


It is important to consider susceptibility to drug-induced toxicity between animals and humans. Chimeric mice with a humanized liver are expected to predict hepatotoxicity in humans. Drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL), in which phospholipids accumulate, is a known entity. In this study, we examined whether chimeric mice can reveal species differences in DIPL. Changes in various phosphatidylcholine (PhC) molecules were investigated in the liver of chimeric mice after administering amiodarone, which induces phospholipidosis. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry revealed that levels of PhCs tended to increase in the liver after administration of amiodarone. The liver of chimeric mice consists of human hepatocytes and residual mouse hepatocytes. We used imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to evaluate the increase of PhCs in human and mouse hepatocytes after administration of amiodarone. IMS visualizes localization of endogenous and exogenous molecules in tissues. The IMS analysis suggested that the localized levels of several PhCs tended to be higher in the human hepatocytes than those in mouse hepatocytes, and PhC levels changed in response to amiodarone. Chimeric mice with a humanized liver will be useful to evaluate species differences in DIPL between mice and humans.


Amiodarone; Chimeric mice with humanized liver; Imaging mass spectrometry; Phosphatidylcholine; Phospholipidosis

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