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Nature. 2017 Sep 21;549(7672):351-356. doi: 10.1038/nature24029. Epub 2017 Sep 13.

The neuropeptide NMU amplifies ILC2-driven allergic lung inflammation.

Author information

1
Evergrande Center for Immunologic Diseases, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
2
Klarman Cell Observatory, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
3
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
4
Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Division of Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
5
Jill Roberts Institute for Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York, USA.
6
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Department of Biology, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) both contribute to mucosal homeostasis and initiate pathologic inflammation in allergic asthma. However, the signals that direct ILC2s to promote homeostasis versus inflammation are unclear. To identify such molecular cues, we profiled mouse lung-resident ILCs using single-cell RNA sequencing at steady state and after in vivo stimulation with the alarmin cytokines IL-25 and IL-33. ILC2s were transcriptionally heterogeneous after activation, with subpopulations distinguished by expression of proliferative, homeostatic and effector genes. The neuropeptide receptor Nmur1 was preferentially expressed by ILC2s at steady state and after IL-25 stimulation. Neuromedin U (NMU), the ligand of NMUR1, activated ILC2s in vitro, and in vivo co-administration of NMU with IL-25 strongly amplified allergic inflammation. Loss of NMU-NMUR1 signalling reduced ILC2 frequency and effector function, and altered transcriptional programs following allergen challenge in vivo. Thus, NMUR1 signalling promotes inflammatory ILC2 responses, highlighting the importance of neuro-immune crosstalk in allergic inflammation at mucosal surfaces.

PMID:
28902842
PMCID:
PMC5746044
DOI:
10.1038/nature24029
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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