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Anat Histol Embryol. 2017 Dec;46(6):528-532. doi: 10.1111/ahe.12297. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

The location of projection neurons to the biceps brachii muscle in the telencephalon of the pigeon.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, South Korea.
2
Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea.
3
Department of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea.
4
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
5
Department of Emergency Medicine, Seoul Hospital, College of Medicine, Sooncheonhyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
6
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Abstract

Few studies regarding the anatomical distribution of motor neurons innervating muscles of the arm have been demonstrated in avian brains. The purpose of this study was to finely determine the localization of cerebral neurons innervating the biceps brachii muscle in the pigeon. The cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) was employed as a retrograde tracer to determine the location of neurons controlling the biceps brachii muscle in the telencephalon following intramuscular injection in male pigeons (n = 7), which were killed 14 days after intramuscular injection with CTB. We found that CTB-labelled neurons were located contralaterally in the hyperpallium apicale of the rostral telencephalon and that most of the CTB-labelled neurons were pyramidal in shape. This study shows that CTB is easily taken up by nerve terminals which innervate the biceps brachii muscle of the pigeon and that cerebral motor neurons controlling the biceps brachii muscle are located in the hyperpallium apicale.

PMID:
28901020
DOI:
10.1111/ahe.12297
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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