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Curr Biol. 2017 Sep 11;27(17):R919-R930. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.043.

Shaping 3D Root System Architecture.

Author information

1
Centre for Plant Integrative Biology, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK; School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK.
2
Centre for Plant Integrative Biology, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK; School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK; Integrated Molecular Plant Physiology Research, Biology Department, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium.
3
School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK.
4
Centre for Plant Integrative Biology, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK; School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK; Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara 630-0192, Japan.
5
Centre for Plant Integrative Biology, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK; School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK; Institute of Science and Technology Austria, Am Campus 1, 3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria.
6
Centre for Plant Integrative Biology, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK; School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK; Department of Plant Science, 102 Tyson Building, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
7
Integrated Molecular Plant Physiology Research, Biology Department, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium; Plant Biochemistry & Biotechnology Lab, Department of Agriculture, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Stavromenos PC 71410, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
8
Centre for Plant Integrative Biology, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK; School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK. Electronic address: Malcolm.bennett@nottingham.ac.uk.

Abstract

Plants are sessile organisms rooted in one place. The soil resources that plants require are often distributed in a highly heterogeneous pattern. To aid foraging, plants have evolved roots whose growth and development are highly responsive to soil signals. As a result, 3D root architecture is shaped by myriad environmental signals to ensure resource capture is optimised and unfavourable environments are avoided. The first signals sensed by newly germinating seeds - gravity and light - direct root growth into the soil to aid seedling establishment. Heterogeneous soil resources, such as water, nitrogen and phosphate, also act as signals that shape 3D root growth to optimise uptake. Root architecture is also modified through biotic interactions that include soil fungi and neighbouring plants. This developmental plasticity results in a 'custom-made' 3D root system that is best adapted to forage for resources in each soil environment that a plant colonises.

PMID:
28898665
DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.043
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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