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Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2017 Sep 11;19(11):39. doi: 10.1007/s11908-017-0595-4.

Tuberculosis Meningitis.

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Kassem.Bourgi@Vanderbilt.edu.
2
Vanderbilt Tuberculosis Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Kassem.Bourgi@Vanderbilt.edu.
3
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
4
Vanderbilt Tuberculosis Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

As the most severe form of tuberculosis (TB), TB meningitis disproportionately affects developing countries and results in significant morbidity and mortality. In this report, we review recent updates in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of TB meningitis.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Young children and people living with HIV continue to be at highest risk for TB meningitis. Early diagnosis remains challenging, especially since conventional diagnostic tests have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity. Recently, nucleic acid amplification testing emerged as the preferred diagnostic modality due to its rapid turnaround time and high specificity. Several recent studies have assessed the optimal treatment for TB meningitis. While the benefit of treatment intensification, by increasing rifampin dosing or adding a fluoroquinolone, is unclear, a growing body of evidence suggests that steroids confer a survival advantage, particularly in patients with mild disease. Additionally, TB meningitis management is further complicated by high rates of HIV co-infection. Recent data suggest that unlike other forms of TB, early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB meningitis is associated with higher rates of adverse reactions, without improved survival. TB meningitis continues to be a significant problem worldwide. Despite recent advances, more studies are warranted to improve early disease detection and optimize therapy.

KEYWORDS:

Central nervous system (CNS); Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); Tuberculosis (TB)

PMID:
28895024
DOI:
10.1007/s11908-017-0595-4

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