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ACS Nano. 2017 Oct 24;11(10):9979-9988. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.7b04153. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Upconversion Nanoparticles/Hyaluronate-Rose Bengal Conjugate Complex for Noninvasive Photochemical Tissue Bonding.

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) , 77 Cheongam-ro, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 37673, Korea.
Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) , 77 Cheongam-ro, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 37673, Korea.
PHI BIOMED Co. , #613, 12 Gangnam-daero 65-gil, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06612, Korea.
Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital , 65 Landsdowne Street UP-5, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.


The recent progress in photonic nanomaterials has contributed greatly to the development of photomedicines. However, the finite depth of light penetration is still a serious limitation, constraining their clinical applications. Here, we developed a poly(allylamine) (PAAm)-modified upconversion nanoparticle/hyaluronate-rose bengal (UCNP/PAAm/HA-RB) conjugate complex for photochemical bonding of deep tissue with near-infrared (NIR) light illumination. Compared to the conventional invasive treatment via suturing and stapling, the UCNP/PAAm/HA-RB conjugate complex could be noninvasively delivered into the deep tissue and accelerate the tissue bonding upon NIR light illumination. HA in the outer layer of the complex facilitated the penetration of RB into the collagen layer of the dermis. The NIR light triggered UCNP of NaYF4: Yb/Er (Y:Yb:Er = 78:20:2) in the complex to illuminate visible green light under the skin tissue. The activated RB in the HA-RB conjugate by the green light induced radical formation for the cross-linking of incised collagen matrix. An in vitro light propagation test and collagen fibrillogenesis analysis, an in vivo animal tissue bonding test, and an ex vivo tensile strength test of dissected skin tissues confirmed the successful photochemical tissue bonding effect of the UCNP/PAAm/HA-RB conjugate complex.


hyaluronate; near-infrared light; rose bengal; tissue bonding; upconversion nanoparticle

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