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Biomark Insights. 2017 Aug 24;12:1177271917726964. doi: 10.1177/1177271917726964. eCollection 2017.

Chondroitin Sulfate Inhibits Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Release From 3T3-L1 Adipocytes: A New Treatment Opportunity for Obesity-Related Inflammation?

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Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.
Pre-Clinical R&D Department, Bioibérica, S.A.U., Barcelona, Spain.
Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.


Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) overproduction from inflamed adipose tissue is a major contributor to obesity-related metabolic syndromes. 3T3-L1 embryonic fibroblasts were cultured and differentiated into adipocytes using an established protocol. Adipocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation and thus MCP-1 release. At the same time, varying concentrations of chondroitin sulfate (CS) were added in a physiologically relevant range (10-200 µg/mL) to determine its impact on MCP-1 release. Chondroitin sulfate, a natural glycosaminoglycan of connective tissue including the cartilage extracellular matrix, was chosen on the basis of our previous studies demonstrating its anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages. Because the main action of MCP-1 is to induce monocyte migration, cultured THP-1 monocytes were used to test whether CS at the highest physiologically relevant concentration could inhibit cell migration induced by human recombinant MCP-1. Chondroitin sulfate (100-200 µg/mL) inhibited MCP-1 release from inflamed adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner (P < .01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.89 to -3.858 at 100 µg/mL and P < .001, 95% CI: -6.028 to -3.996 at 200 µg/mL) but had no effect on MCP-1-driven chemotaxis of THP-1 monocytes. In summary, CS could be expected to reduce macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue by reduction in adipocyte expression and release of MCP-1 and as such might reduce adipose tissue inflammation in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli such as LPS, now increasingly recognized to be relevant in vivo.


Chondroitin sulfate; LPS; MCP-1; adipocytes; chemokines

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of conflicting interests:The author(s) declared the following potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: E.M. and J.V. are employees of Bioibérica. Bioibérica played no role in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. No nonfinancial conflicts exist for any of the authors.

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