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J Am Coll Surg. 2017 Nov;225(5):658-665.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2017.08.008. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale: Does It Predict Adverse Outcomes among Geriatric Trauma Patients?

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Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario.
Department of Surgery and the Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
Michael G DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.
Division of Trauma, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario.
Division of Geriatric Medicine, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. Electronic address:



The Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) and the laboratory Frailty Index (FI-lab) are validated tools based on clinical and laboratory data, respectively. Their utility as predictors of geriatric trauma outcomes is unknown. Our primary objective was to determine whether pre-admission CFS is associated with adverse discharge destination. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the relationships between CFS and in-hospital complications and between admission FI-lab and discharge destination.


We performed a 4-year (2011 to 2014) retrospective cohort study with patients 65 years and older admitted to a level I trauma center. Admission FI-lab was calculated using 23 variables collected within 48 hours of presentation. The primary outcome was discharge destination, either adverse (death or discharge to a long-term, chronic, or acute care facility) or favorable (home or rehabilitation). The secondary outcome was in-hospital complications. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between CFS or FI-lab and outcomes.


There were 266 patients included. Mean age was 76.5 ± 7.8 years and median Injury Severity Score was 17 (interquartile range 13 to 24). There were 260 patients and 221 patients who had sufficient data to determine CFS and FI-lab scores, respectively. Pre-admission frailty as per the CFS (CFS 6 or 7) was independently associated with adverse discharge destination (odds ratio 5.1; 95% CI 2.0 to 13.2; p < 0.001). Severe frailty on admission, as determined by the FI-lab (FI-lab > 0.4), was not associated with adverse outcomes.


Pre-admission clinical frailty independently predicts adverse discharge destination in geriatric trauma patients. The CFS may be used to triage resources to mitigate adverse outcomes in this population. The FI-lab determined on admission for trauma may not be useful.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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