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Annu Rev Microbiol. 2017 Sep 8;71:665-686. doi: 10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093530.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Drug Resistance, Mouse Models, and Vaccine Development.

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Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605-4321; email: ,
Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Antibiotic Resistance Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322.
Laboratories of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, Georgia 30033; email:
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, F. Edward H├ębert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-4799; email:


Gonorrhea, an obligate human infection, is on the rise worldwide and gonococcal strains resistant to many antibiotics are emerging. Appropriate antimicrobial treatment and prevention, including effective vaccines, are urgently needed. To guide investigation, an experimental model of genital tract infection has been developed in female mice to study mechanisms by which Neisseria gonorrhoeae evades host-derived antimicrobial factors and to identify protective and immunosuppressive pathways. Refinements of the animal model have also improved its use as a surrogate host of human infection and accelerated the testing of novel therapeutic and prophylactic compounds against gonococcal infection. Reviewed herein are the (a) history of antibiotic usage and resistance against gonorrhea and the consequences of resistance mechanisms that may increase gonococcal fitness and therefore the potential for spread, (b) use of gonococcal infection in the animal model system to study mechanisms of pathogenesis and host defenses, and.


antibiotic resistance; gonorrhea; mouse models; vaccines

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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