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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 Jan;1411(1):36-52. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13441. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Endoluminal weight loss and metabolic therapies: current and future techniques.

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Diversity Summer Internship Program, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.


Obesity is a public health epidemic associated with a number of comorbidities, most notably type 2 diabetes and hypertension, as well as elevated all-cause mortality. The treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities has most recently expanded into the field of bariatric endoscopy. This field bridges a gap between lifestyle counseling with or without pharmaceutical treatment and the most effective treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery. Because of its minimally invasive nature, bariatric endoscopic therapy has the potential to appeal to the large sector of the obese population that resists surgery, as well as those early in the onset of obesity. To date, five endoscopic devices have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of obesity, and many more are in development, undergoing clinical trials, or being used around the world. Here, we present the current state of the field, highlight recent developments, and describe the clinical outcomes of these minimally invasive procedures in terms of weight loss, improvement in metabolic profile, and reduction in comorbidities.


aspiration therapy; endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty; gastrointestinal bypass sleeve; intragastric balloon; primary obesity surgery endoluminal; transoral gastroplasty


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