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Mol Biotechnol. 2017 Dec;59(11-12):518-529. doi: 10.1007/s12033-017-0034-7.

A Concise Review of MicroRNA Exploring the Insights of MicroRNA Regulations in Bacterial, Viral and Metabolic Diseases.

Author information

1
Faculty of Veterinary Science, Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan. 2008ag2901@uaf.edu.pk.
2
Faculty of Veterinary Science, Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan.
3
Institute of Dentistry, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Abstract

MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small section of ribonucleic acid (RNA) that reduces the protein formation by making the pair of the complementary piece of mRNA. The genes of miRNA are present as transcriptional or polycistronic units in the chromosomes. The cellular multiplication, separation and existence like the multitude of genetic functions are affected by miRNA. Nearly 50% of identified miRNA are located in the residence in the intronic part of the genes. The mature miRNA is yielded in two steps. Drosha and RNA-induced silencing complex are the catalysts that play an important role in miRNA synthesis. The miRNA may function by just hindering the translation or complete vitiation of miRNA that occurs to control the genes. The microRNA antagonists and miRNA mimics are therapeutics approaches for the treatment of abnormalities. The upregulation and downregulation of miRNAs are linked to a number of diseases as miR-122 is associated with viral hepatitis, and some members of let-7 and other miRNAs are concerned with various diseases. Overexpressed miRNAs may function as both oncogenes and regulator of cellular processes. The miRNA functions can be altered by single-point mutations in miRNA target and epigenetic silencing of transcription units. There are numerous molecular targets for miRNA as degradation by nuclease and phosphodiesterase. Thus, miRNA has potential applications in disease diagnosis along with therapy, but the mechanisms involved in miRNA systems and its targeted delivery of miRNA are much more important to achieve its therapeutic applications.

KEYWORDS:

Drosha; MicroRNA; RISC; Therapeutics

PMID:
28884294
DOI:
10.1007/s12033-017-0034-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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