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Future Sci OA. 2017 Jul 7;3(3):FSO224. doi: 10.4155/fsoa-2017-0047. eCollection 2017 Aug.

Development and validation of an impedance biosensor for point-of-care detection of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 toward lupus diagnostics.

Author information

Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA.
Cognition and Neuroscience, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas at Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA.



Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that requires chronic monitoring. In this study, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept study of a highly attractive noninvasive strategy for monitoring systemic lupus erythematosus through biomarker quantification.


This sensor technology requires 50 μl of urine to detect and quantify vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in 15 min. The sensor used nonfaradaic detection to demonstrate performance with and without detection antibody. Binding of immunoassay and target biomarkers were quantified with an impedance electrical immunoassay and correlated with an equivalent circuit.


The novel sensor technology demonstrates detection in the range of 8 fg/ml to 800 pg/ml and comparative analysis with ELISA platforms was performed for 12 patient urine samples.


VCAM-1; impedance biosensor; rapid urine screening test

Conflict of interest statement

Financial & competing interests disclosure This work was supported by funding NIH (R01 DK81872). C Mohan and T Wu are currently affiliated with Department of Biomedical Engineering at University of Houston. M Jacobs is currently affiliated with Aethlon Medical Inc., CA, USA. A Wangzhou is currently affiliated with Department of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, UT Dallas, TX. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed. No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this manuscript.

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