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Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2017 Feb 10;3:3. doi: 10.1186/s40794-017-0046-0. eCollection 2017.

Vectored immunoprophylaxis: an emerging adjunct to traditional vaccination.

Author information

1
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 USA.
2
Salisbury Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salisbury, NC USA.
3
Naval Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA.
4
Section on Infectious Diseases and Department of Bio-Engineering, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, USA.

Abstract

The successful development of effective vaccines has been elusive for many of the world's most important infectious diseases. Additionally, much of the population, such as the aged or immunocompromised, are unable to mount an effective immunologic response for existing vaccines. Vectored Immunoprophylaxis (VIP) is a novel approach designed to address these challenges. Rather than utilizing an antigen to trigger a response from the host's immune system as is normally done with traditional vaccines, VIP genetically engineers the production of tailored antibodies from non-hematopoietic cells, bypassing the humoral immune system. Direct administration of genes encoding for neutralizing antibodies has proven to be effective in both preventing and treating several infectious diseases in animal models. While, a significant amount of work has focused on HIV, including an ongoing clinical trial, the approach has also been shown to be effective for malaria, dengue, hepatitis C, influenza, and more. In addition to presenting itself as a potentially efficient approach to solving long-standing vaccine challenges, the approach may be the best, if not only, method to vaccinate immunocompromised individuals. Many issues still need to be addressed, including which tissue(s) makes the most suitable platform, which vector(s) are most efficient at transducing the platform tissue used to secrete the antibodies, and what are the long-term effects of such a treatment. Here we provide a brief overview of this approach, and its potential application in treating some of the world's most intractable infectious diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Broadly neutralizing antibody; Gene therapy; HIV; Immunoprophylaxis by gene transfer; Salivary gland; Vaccine; Vector; Vector-mediated antibody gene transfer; Vectored immunoprophylaxis

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