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Biol Open. 2017 Oct 15;6(10):1575-1580. doi: 10.1242/bio.027847.

Quantitative analysis of mechanical force required for cell extrusion in zebrafish embryonic epithelia.

Author information

1
Gene Regulation Research, Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192, Japan.
2
Bio-Process Engineering, Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192, Japan.
3
Gene Regulation Research, Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192, Japan matsui@bs.naist.jp.

Abstract

When cells in epithelial sheets are damaged by intrinsic or extrinsic causes, they are eliminated by extrusion from the sheet. Cell extrusion, which is required for maintenance of tissue integrity, is the consequence of contraction of actomyosin rings, as demonstrated by both molecular/cellular biological experimentation and numerical simulation. However, quantitative evaluation of actomyosin contraction has not been performed because of the lack of a suitable direct measurement system. In this study, we developed a new method using a femtosecond laser to quantify the contraction force of the actomyosin ring during cell extrusion in zebrafish embryonic epithelia. In this system, an epithelial cell in zebrafish embryo is first damaged by direct femtosecond laser irradiation. Next, a femtosecond laser-induced impulsive force is loaded onto the actomyosin ring, and the contraction force is quantified to be on the order of kPa as a unit of pressure. We found that cell extrusion was delayed when the contraction force was slightly attenuated, suggesting that a relatively small force is sufficient to drive cell extrusion. Thus, our method is suitable for the relative quantitative evaluation of mechanical dynamics in the process of cell extrusion, and in principle the method is applicable to similar phenomena in different tissues and organs of various species.

KEYWORDS:

Contractile ring; Contraction force; Enveloping layer; Femtosecond laser

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interestsThe authors declare no competing or financial interests.

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