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BMJ. 2017 Sep 7;358:j3776. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j3776.

Dental procedures, antibiotic prophylaxis, and endocarditis among people with prosthetic heart valves: nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study.

Author information

1
INSERM, IAME, UMR 1137, Paris, France; Université Paris Diderot, IAME, UMR 1137, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; INSERM CIC-1425, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard, Paris, France sarah.tubiana@aphp.fr.
2
Department of Studies in Public Health, French National Health Insurance, Paris Cedex 20, France.
3
Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales et Inserm-CIC 1424, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Pointe-à-Pitre, Pointe-à-Pitre, France; Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Faculté de Médecine Hyacinthe Bastaraud, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe, France.
4
INSERM, U 1229, RMeS, Nantes, France, UFR d'Odontologie, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France, CHU Hôtel Dieu, Nantes, France.
5
Department of Odontology, CHRU Université de Montpellier, France; UMR 1149 INSERM, CRI. Université Paris Diderot, France.
6
INSERM, IAME, UMR 1137, Paris, France; Université Paris Diderot, IAME, UMR 1137, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; INSERM CIC-1425, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard, Paris, France.

Abstract

Objective To assess the relation between invasive dental procedures and infective endocarditis associated with oral streptococci among people with prosthetic heart valves.Design Nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study.Setting French national health insurance administrative data linked with the national hospital discharge database.Participants All adults aged more than 18 years, living in France, with medical procedure codes for positioning or replacement of prosthetic heart valves between July 2008 and July 2014.Main outcome measures Oral streptococcal infective endocarditis was identified using primary discharge diagnosis codes. In the cohort study, Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the rate of oral streptococcal infective endocarditis during the three month period after invasive dental procedures compared with non-exposure periods. In the case crossover study, conditional logistic regression models calculated the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals comparing exposure to invasive dental procedures during the three month period preceding oral streptococcal infective endocarditis (case period) with three earlier control periods.Results The cohort included 138 876 adults with prosthetic heart valves (285 034 person years); 69 303 (49.9%) underwent at least one dental procedure. Among the 396 615 dental procedures performed, 103 463 (26.0%) were invasive and therefore presented an indication for antibiotic prophylaxis, which was performed in 52 280 (50.1%). With a median follow-up of 1.7 years, 267 people developed infective endocarditis associated with oral streptococci (incidence rate 93.7 per 100 000 person years, 95% confidence interval 82.4 to 104.9). Compared with non-exposure periods, no statistically significant increased rate of oral streptococcal infective endocarditis was observed during the three months after an invasive dental procedure (relative rate 1.25, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.82; P=0.26) and after an invasive dental procedure without antibiotic prophylaxis (1.57, 0.90 to 2.53; P=0.08). In the case crossover analysis, exposure to invasive dental procedures was more frequent during case periods than during matched control periods (5.1% v 3.2%; odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 2.63; P=0.03).Conclusion Invasive dental procedures may contribute to the development of infective endocarditis in adults with prosthetic heart valves.

PMID:
28882817
PMCID:
PMC5588045
DOI:
10.1136/bmj.j3776
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf and declare: no support from any organisation for the submitted work; no financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

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