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J Clin Nurs. 2017 Dec;26(23-24):5179-5190. doi: 10.1111/jocn.14070. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

The effect of self-administered superficial local hot and cold application methods on pain, functional status and quality of life in primary knee osteoarthritis patients.

Author information

1
Fundamentals of Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey.
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, School of Nursing, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey.
3
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Gulhane Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Abstract

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the effect of the self-administered superficial local hot and cold applications on pain, and the functional status and the quality of life in primary knee osteoarthritis patients.

BACKGROUND:

Superficial local hot and cold application is used as a nonpharmacological method for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. However, various guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis have conflicting recommendation for hot and cold therapy.

DESIGN:

A randomised clinical trial design.

METHODS:

The sample consisted of patients (n = 96) who were diagnosed with primary knee osteoarthritis. During the application stage, patients were designated to the hot and cold application groups and administered hot and cold application twice a day for 3 weeks together with standard osteoarthritis treatment. The control group only used standard osteoarthritis treatment. The data were collected with a Descriptive Information Form, a Pain Scale, the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and a Patient Satisfaction Evaluation Form. Outcome measures included pain intensity, functional status and quality of life.

RESULTS:

We found decreased primary measurement pain scores and improved functional status scores and quality of life scores after the application programme compared to the pre-application stage in both the hot and cold application groups. Once the application was completed, the pain scores, functional status scores and quality-of-life scores on the second measurements were found to be still statistically lower than the pre-application scores but higher than the first measurement ([p < .001, χ2  = 48.000; p < .001, χ2  = 34.000], [p < .001, χ2  = 22.000; p = .001 χ2 =14.000] and [p = .005, χ2  = 16.000; p = .001, χ2  = 12.500]). There was no difference in the perceived pain, functional status and quality of life between the pre-application, postapplication and 2 weeks postapplication periods of the individuals in three groups (p > .05).

CONCLUSION:

It was found that both hot and cold application resulted in a mild improvement in pain, functional status and quality of life, but this improvement was not sufficient to create a significant difference between the groups.

RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:

This study contributes to the literature on hot and cold application methods as self-management strategies for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

KEYWORDS:

cold application; hot application; knee osteoarthritis

PMID:
28880416
DOI:
10.1111/jocn.14070
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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