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Pflugers Arch. 2018 Jan;470(1):143-154. doi: 10.1007/s00424-017-2027-6. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Chromogranins: from discovery to current times.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Karen.Helle@biomed.uib.
2
Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale, Strasbourg, France.
3
Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Calabria, Arcavata de Rende, Italy.

Abstract

The discovery in 1953 of the chromaffin granules as co-storage of catecholamines and ATP was soon followed by identification of a range of uniquely acidic proteins making up the isotonic vesicular storage complex within elements of the diffuse sympathoadrenal system. In the mid-1960s, the enzymatically inactive, major core protein, chromogranin A was shown to be exocytotically discharged from the stimulated adrenal gland in parallel with the co-stored catecholamines and ATP. A prohormone concept was introduced when one of the main storage proteins collectively named granins was identified as the insulin release inhibitory polypeptide pancreastatin. A wide range of granin-derived biologically active peptides have subsequently been identified. Both chromogranin A and chromogranin B give rise to antimicrobial peptides of relevance for combat of pathogens. While two of the chromogranin A-derived peptides, vasostatin-I and pancreastatin, are involved in modulation of calcium and glucose homeostasis, respectively, vasostatin-I and catestatin are important modulators of endothelial permeability, angiogenesis, myocardial contractility, and innate immunity. A physiological role is now evident for the full-length chromogranin A and vasostatin-I as circulating stabilizers of endothelial integrity and in protection against myocardial injury. The high circulating levels of chromogranin A and its fragments in patients suffering from various inflammatory diseases have emerged as challenges for future research and clinical applications.

KEYWORDS:

Catestatin; Chromogranin A; Chromogranin B; Inflammatory diseases; Physiological roles; Vasostatin-I

PMID:
28875377
DOI:
10.1007/s00424-017-2027-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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