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Eur J Nutr. 2018 Apr;57(3):861-876. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1524-x. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Influence of gut microbiota on the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Author information

1
Universitary Hospital and School of Medicine, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. bia.ghetti@hotmail.com.
2
Unidade de Nutrição Clínica, Hospital Universitário, Rua Catulo Breviglieri, s/n, Bairro Santa Catarina, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, CEP 36036-330, Brazil. bia.ghetti@hotmail.com.
3
Universitary Hospital and School of Medicine, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
4
Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
5
Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by the presence of steatosis, inflammation, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, with or without fibrosis. The prevalence of NASH has increased with the obesity epidemic, but its etiology is multifactorial. The current studies suggest the role of gut microbiota in the development and progression of NASH. The aim is to review the studies that investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and NASH. These review also discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms and the influence of diet on the gut-liver axis.

RESULT:

The available literature has proposed mechanisms for an association between gut microbiota and NASH, such as: modification energy homeostasis, lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-endotoxemia, increased endogenous production of ethanol, and alteration in the metabolism of bile acid and choline. There is evidence to suggest that NASH patients have a higher prevalence of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine and changes in the composition of the gut microbiota. However, there is still a controversy regarding the microbiome profile in this population. The abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum may be increased, decreased, or unaltered in NASH patients. There is an increase in the Escherichia and Bacteroides genus. There is depletion of certain taxa, such as Prevotella and Faecalibacterium.

CONCLUSION:

Although few studies have evaluated the composition of the gut microbiota in patients with NASH, it is observed that these individuals have a distinct gut microbiota, compared to the control groups, which explains, at least in part, the genesis and progression of the disease through multiple mechanisms. Modulation of the gut microbiota through diet control offers new challenges for future studies.

KEYWORDS:

Dysbiosis; Gut microbiota; Microbiome; Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Steatohepatitis

PMID:
28875318
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-017-1524-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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