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J Adv Prosthodont. 2017 Aug;9(4):315-320. doi: 10.4047/jap.2017.9.4.315. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Analysis of crown size and morphology, and gingival shape in the maxillary anterior dentition in Korean young adults.

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Department of Prosthodontics, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Department of Biomaterials & Prosthodontics, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.



The aim of this investigation was to analyze the dimensions of clinical crowns and to classify the crown and the gingival type in the anterior teeth in Korean young adults.


Casts were obtained from 50 subjects ranging in age from 24 to 32. Measurements of length and width were made on the casts using a pair of digital calipers on the entire dentition. Crown thickness and papilla height were also measured and MDW/CL (mesiodistal width to clinical length) and CW/CL (cervical width to clinical length) ratios of the maxillary anterior teeth were calculated. The K-clustering method was used for CW/CL to classify the anterior tooth shape into three groups (tapered, ovoid, and square), and one-way analysis of variance and Duncan's post-hoc comparison were used to evaluate statistical significance between the groups. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed between tooth shape and papillary height (PH) to demonstrate the correlation between tooth shape and gingival morphological characteristics.


The average length of the maxillary central incisors was 9.89 mm; the mesio-distal width was 8.54 mm; and the ratio of width/length was 0.86 in Korean young adults. The average bucco-palatal thickness of the central incisor was 3.14 mm at the incisal 1/3 aspect. Ovoid type was the most common tooth shape (48%), followed by square type (29%) and taper type (23%) in the central incisors of Korean young adults. Tooth shape and gingival type were correlated with each other.


New reference data were established for tooth size in Korean young adults and the data show several patterns of tooth shape and gingival type. Clinicians should diagnose and treat based on these characteristics for better results in the Korean population.


Anterior teeth; Gingival type; Korean adult; Tooth shape; Tooth size

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