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West J Emerg Med. 2017 Aug;18(5):856-863. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2017.5.33901. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Antimicrobial Therapy for Pneumonia in the Emergency Department: The Impact of Clinical Pharmacists on Appropriateness.

Author information

1
University of Iowa, College of Pharmacy, Iowa City, Iowa.
2
University of Iowa, Department of Emergency Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa.
3
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Pharmacy, Iowa City, Iowa.
4
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Emergency Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa.
5
University of Iowa, Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Anesthesia, Iowa City, Iowa.
6
Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital, Department of Critical Care Pharmacy, Roanoke, Virginia.
7
University of Iowa, College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa.
8
University of Iowa, Department of Epidemiology, Iowa City, Iowa.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Pneumonia impacts over four million people annually and is the leading cause of infectious disease-related hospitalization and mortality in the United States. Appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy decreases hospital length of stay and improves mortality. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of an emergency medicine (EM) clinical pharmacist improves the timing and appropriateness of empiric antimicrobial therapy for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP).

METHODS:

This was a retrospective observational cohort study of all emergency department (ED) patients presenting to a Midwest 60,000-visit academic ED from July 1, 2008, to March 1, 2016, who presented to the ED with pneumonia and received antimicrobial therapy. The treatment group consisted of patients who presented during the hours an EM pharmacist was present in the ED (Monday-Friday, 0900-1800). The control group included patients presenting during the hours when an EM clinical pharmacist was not physically present in the ED (Monday-Friday, 1800-0900, Saturday/Sunday 0000-2400 day). We defined appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy using the Infectious Diseases Society of America consensus guidelines on the management of CAP, and management of HCAP.

RESULTS:

A total of 406 patients were included in the final analysis (103 treatment patients and 303 control patients). During the hours the EM pharmacist was present, patients were significantly more likely to receive appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy (58.3% vs. 38.3%; p<0.001). Regardless of pneumonia type, patients seen while an EM pharmacist was present were significantly more likely to receive appropriate antimicrobial therapy (CAP, 77.7% vs. 52.9% p=0.008, HCAP, 47.7% vs. 28.8%, p=0.005). There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes.

CONCLUSION:

The presence of an EM clinical pharmacist significantly increases the likelihood of appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy for patients presenting to the ED with pneumonia.

PMID:
28874937
PMCID:
PMC5576621
DOI:
10.5811/westjem.2017.5.33901
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of Interest: By the WestJEM article submission agreement, all authors are required to disclose all affiliations, funding sources and financial or management relationships that could be perceived as potential sources of bias. This study was partially funded by a research grant from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Research and Education Foundation and the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.

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