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PLoS One. 2017 Sep 5;12(9):e0184313. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184313. eCollection 2017.

Neuropsychological functioning, age, and medication adherence in bipolar disorder.

Corréard N1,2, Consoloni JL1,2,3, Raust A2,4, Etain B2,5, Guillot R2,6, Job S2,6, Loftus J2,7, Médecin I2,7, Bougerol T2,8, Polosan M2,8,9, Fredembach B2,8, Gard S2,10, M'Bailara K2,10,11, Kahn JP2,6,12,13, Roux P2,14, Homassel AS2,14, Carminati M2,5, Matos L2,15, Olié E2,15,16, Bellivier F2,5, Courtet P2,15,16, Henry C2,4,17, Leboyer M2,4,17, Azorin JM1,2,18, Belzeaux R1,2,3; FACE-BD collaborators.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, AP-HM, Marseille, France.
2
FondaMental foundation, Foundation of scientific cooperation, Créteil, France.
3
CRN2M-UMR7286, Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, Marseille, France.
4
AP-HP, Academic Hospital Henri Mondor, Psychiatric and Addictology pole, Créteil, France.
5
AP-HP, Fernand Widal Hospital, Department of Addictology-Toxicology-Psychiatry and University Paris-7, Paris, France.
6
Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapeutic Centre of Nancy, Laxou, France.
7
Department of Psychiatry, Princess-Grace Hospital, Monaco, Monaco.
8
Department of Psychiatry, Academic Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble, France.
9
U1216 INSERM-UGA - Brain stimulation and Systems neuroscience, Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences, La Tronche, France.
10
Charles-Perrens Hospital, Department of clinical and academic Psychiatry, Bordeaux, France.
11
University of Bordeaux, Laboratory of psychology, Bordeaux, France.
12
French Addictovigilance network (CEIP-A) CHRU of Nancy, Nancy, France.
13
University of Lorraine, Nancy, France.
14
Department of Psychiatry for adults, Academic Hospital of Versailles, UFR of Health Sciences Simone Veil, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, Versailles, France.
15
CHRU Lapeyronie, Department of Emergency Psychiatry and Post-Acute Care, Montpellier, France.
16
Inserm, U1061, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
17
Inserm, U955, Translational Psychiatry, Mondor Institute, Créteil, France.
18
CNRS, UMR 7289, Institute of Neurosciences Timone, Marseille, France.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Poor adherence to medication is frequent in bipolar disorder (BD) and has been associated with several factors. To date, the relationship between low adherence and neuropsychological functioning in BD is still unclear. As age and neuropsychological functioning might have opposing influences on adherence, our aim was to investigate this link with a particular focus on the effect of age.

METHODS:

In a cross-sectional study, we included 353 patients divided into two age-groups (16-46; 47-71) from a French cohort diagnosed with BD (type I, II, NOS) and strictly euthymic. All patients had a standardized clinical and neuropsychological assessment and were categorized as high (n = 186) or low (n = 167) adherent based on their score from the Medication Adherence Rating Scale. Clinical information was collected based on a standardized interview and clinical validated scales. Neuropsychological performances were evaluated with an established standardized neuropsychological battery for bipolar disorder patients. After univariate analysis, neuropsychological and clinical predictors of low adherence were included in two age-specific stepwise multiple logistic regressions.

RESULTS:

A smaller number of hospitalizations (OR = 0.846, p = 0.012), a shorter illness duration (OR = 0.937, p = 0.003) and higher adverse effects (OR = 1.082, p<0.001) were associated with a greater risk of low adherence in the younger patients. In the older patients, low adherence was also predicted by a smaller number of hospitalizations (OR = 0.727, p = 0.008) and higher adverse effects (OR = 1.124, p = 0.005). Interestingly poor inhibition performance was also a significant predictor of low adherence in older patients (OR = 0.924, p = 0.030).

CONCLUSIONS:

We found an age-specific relationship between cognitive functioning and adherence in patients with BD. Poor inhibition performances predicted low adherence in older patients only. Our results highlight the need to provide age-adapted therapeutic interventions to improve adherence in patients with BD.

PMID:
28873468
PMCID:
PMC5584797
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0184313
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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