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Neurotoxicology. 2018 Jan;64:118-125. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2017.08.015. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Changes in water manganese levels and longitudinal assessment of intellectual function in children exposed through drinking water.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Montréal, Québec, Canada; Sainte-Justine University Hospital Research Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
2
Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Montréal, Québec, Canada; Sainte-Justine University Hospital Research Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Biology, Health, Society and Environment (CINBIOSE), Université du Québec à Montréal, Québec, Canada.
3
Department of Chemistry, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada.
4
Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Québec, Canada.
5
Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Biology, Health, Society and Environment (CINBIOSE), Université du Québec à Montréal, Québec, Canada.
6
Sainte-Justine University Hospital Research Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Biology, Health, Society and Environment (CINBIOSE), Université du Québec à Montréal, Québec, Canada; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address: maryse.bouchard@umontreal.ca.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Manganese is commonly found in water but potential neurotoxic effects from exposure through drinking water are poorly understood. We previously reported a cross-sectional study showing that drinking water Mn concentration was associated with lower IQ in children aged 6 to 13 years.

OBJECTIVE:

For this follow-up study, we aimed to re-assess the relation between exposure to Mn from drinking water and IQ at adolescence. In addition, we aimed to examine whether changes in drinking water Mn concentration was associated with changes in IQ scores.

METHODS:

From the 380 children enrolled in the baseline study, 287 participated to this follow-up study conducted in average 4.4 years after. Mn concentration was measured in home tap water and children's hair. The relationships between these Mn exposure indicators and IQ scores (Weschsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence) at follow-up were assessed with linear regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. Intra-individual differences in IQ scores between the two examinations were compared for children whose Mn concentration in water remained stable between examinations, increased or decreased.

RESULTS:

The mean age at follow-up was 13.7 years (range, 10.5 to 18.0 years). Geometric mean of Mn concentration in water at follow-up was 14.5μg/L. Higher Mn concentration in water measured at follow-up was associated with lower Performance IQ in girls (β for a 10-fold increase=-2.8, 95% confidence intervals [CI] -4.8 to -0.8) and higher Performance IQ in boys (β=3.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.4). IQ scores were not significantly associated with Mn concentration in hair, although similar trends as for concentration in water were observed. For children whose Mn concentration in water increased between baseline and follow-up, Performance IQ scores decreased significantly (intra-individual difference, -2.4 points).

CONCLUSION:

Higher levels of Mn in drinking water were associated with lower Performance IQ in girls, whereas the opposite was observed in boys. These findings suggest long-term exposure to Mn through drinking water is associated differently with cognition in boys and girls.

KEYWORDS:

Children; Intelligence quotient; Manganese; Neurotoxicity; Water

PMID:
28870865
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuro.2017.08.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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