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Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2017 Jul;10(7):663-669. doi: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.006. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Chemical analysis and in vitro antimicrobial effects and mechanism of action of Trachyspermum copticum essential oil against Escherichia coli.

Author information

1
Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300222, People's Republic of China; China Packaging Research & Test Center, Tianjin 300457, People's Republic of China.
2
Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300222, People's Republic of China.
3
Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300222, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: liuguangfa@tust.edu.cn.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To find a natural plant essential oil (EO) with excellent antimicrobial effects on food-borne bacteria and to explore the mechanism of its antimicrobial function against Escherichia coli (E. coli).

METHODS:

The antimicrobial activity of seven EOs against Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 8739 and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was investigated using agar disk diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of each EO was determined using the broth dilution method. The chemical composition of the Trachyspermum copticum (T. copticum) EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In order to explore the mechanism of the antimicrobial action, 1 MIC and 2 MIC of T. copticum EO was added to a suspension of E. coli, the growth curve and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of E. coli, and the release of cell constituents and protein and potassium ions from the bacterial cell were measured.

RESULTS:

The T. copticum EO had the best antimicrobial activity against the test bacteria, and 10 compounds accounting for 94.57% of the total oil were identified, with the major components being thymol (46.22%), p-cymene (19.03%), and γ-terpinene (22.41%). The addition of 1 MIC that T. copticum EO significantly inhibited the growth of E. coli and increased the release of cell constituents and protein and potassium ions from the bacterial cells. Scanning electron micrographs showed that T. copticum EO caused most of the E. coli cell membranes to collapse and rupture, leading to cell death.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results indicate that T. copticum EO is a good natural antimicrobial agent for food-borne pathogens.

KEYWORDS:

Antimicrobial activity; Escherichia coli; Essential oil; GC/MS; Mechanism; Trachyspermum copticum

PMID:
28870342
DOI:
10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.006
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