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Arch Toxicol. 2018 Jan;92(1):195-211. doi: 10.1007/s00204-017-2056-0. Epub 2017 Sep 2.

Early response of glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent antioxidant defense systems to Tl(I)- and Tl(III)-mediated oxidative stress in adherent pheochromocytoma (PC12adh) cells.

Author information

1
Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
2
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas (IQUIFIB), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
3
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas (IQUIFIB), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Buenos Aires, Argentina. verstraeten@ffyb.uba.ar.

Abstract

Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal that causes oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we evaluated the production of oxygen (ROS)- and nitrogen (RNS)-reactive species in adherent PC12 (PC12adh) cells exposed for 0.5-6 h to Tl(I) or Tl(III) (10-100 µM). In this system, Tl(I) induced mostly H2O2 generation while Tl(III) induced H2O2 and ONOO·- generation. Both cations enhanced iNOS expression and activity, and decreased CuZnSOD expression but without affecting its activity. Tl(I) increased MnSOD expression and activity but Tl(III) decreased them. NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity remained unaffected throughout the period assessed. Oxidant levels returned to baseline values after 6 h of incubation, suggesting a response of the antioxidant defense system to the oxidative insult imposed by the cations. Tl also affected the glutathione-dependent system: while Tl(III) increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression and activity, Tl(I) and Tl(III) decreased glutathione reductase (GR) expression. However, GR activity was mildly enhanced by Tl(III). Finally, thioredoxin-dependent system was evaluated. Only Tl(I) increased 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prx) expression, although both cations increased their activity. Tl(I) increased cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) and decreased mitochondrial (TrxR2) expression. Tl(III) had a biphasic effect on TrxR1 expression and slightly increased TrxR2 expression. Despite of this, both cations increased total TrxR activity. Obtained results suggest that in Tl(I)-exposed PC12adh cells, there is an early response to oxidative stress mainly by GSH-dependent system while in Tl(III)-treated cells both GSH- and Trx-dependent systems are involved.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidant defense system; Antioxidant enzymes; Glutathione; Mitochondria; Oxidative stress; PC12 cells; Thallium; Thioredoxin

PMID:
28866748
DOI:
10.1007/s00204-017-2056-0

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