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Sleep Med Rev. 2018 Apr;38:168-176. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2017.06.005. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Sleep quality during pregnancy: A meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address: isedov@ucalgary.ca.
2
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address: camerone@ucalgary.ca.
3
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health (ACHRI), Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address: sheri.madigan@ucalgary.ca.
4
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health (ACHRI), Calgary, AB, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address: ltomfohr@ucalgary.ca.

Abstract

Women's sleep quality has been reported to change during pregnancy; prevalence estimates of poor sleep quality during pregnancy vary widely. To further understand the observed variation of findings, we conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the prevalence of poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Articles (N = 24) that reported prevalence of poor sleep quality as captured by the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) ≥ 5 were included, with a total of 11,002 participants contributing data. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched. Results indicated that the average PSQI score during pregnancy was 6.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) [5.30, 6.85], and 45.7%, 95% CI [36.5%, 55.2%], of pregnant women experienced poor sleep quality. Longitudinal studies indicated that sleep quality decreased from second (M = 5.31, SE = 0.40) to third trimester (M = 7.03, SE = 0.85) by 1.68 points, 95% CI [0.42, 2.94]. Gestational age moderated the average PSQI scores and prevalence of PSQI scores ≥5; older samples reported higher mean PSQI scores and higher prevalence of poor sleep quality. Clinicians should be aware that some reduction in sleep quality is expected during pregnancy, but complaints of very poor sleep quality could require intervention. Future research should examine various factors underlying poor sleep quality during pregnancy.

KEYWORDS:

Pittsburgh sleep quality index; Pregnancy; Sleep disturbance; Sleep quality

PMID:
28866020
DOI:
10.1016/j.smrv.2017.06.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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