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Ecol Evol. 2017 Jun 30;7(16):6151-6162. doi: 10.1002/ece3.3085. eCollection 2017 Aug.

Temperature, energy metabolism, and adaptive divergence in two oyster subspecies.

Li A1,2, Li L1,3,4, Song K1,4,5, Wang W1,4,5, Zhang G1,4,5.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine BiologyInstitute of Oceanology Chinese Academy of Sciences Qingdao Shandong China.
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China.
3
Laboratory for Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology Qingdao Shandong China.
4
National & Local Joint Engineering Key Laboratory of Ecological Mariculture Institute of Oceanology Chinese Academy of Sciences Qingdao Shandong China.
5
Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology Qingdao Shandong China.

Abstract

Comparisons of related species that have diverse spatial distributions provide an efficient way to investigate adaptive evolution in face of increasing global warming. The oyster subjected to high environmental selections is a model species as sessile marine invertebrate. This study aimed to detect the adaptive divergence of energy metabolism in two oyster subspecies from the genus Crassostrea-C. gigas gigas and C. gigas angulata-which are broadly distributed along the northern and southern coasts of China, respectively. We examined the effects of acute thermal stress on energy metabolism in two oyster subspecies after being common gardened for one generation in identical conditions. Thermal responses were assessed by incorporating physiological, molecular, and genomic approaches. Southern oysters exhibited higher fluctuations in metabolic rate, activities of key energetic enzymes, and levels of thermally induced gene expression than northern oysters. For genes involved in energy metabolism, the former displayed higher basal levels of gene expression and a more pronounced downregulation of thermally induced expression, while the later exhibited lower basal levels and a less pronounced downregulation of gene expression. Contrary expression pattern was observed in oxidative stress gene. Besides, energy metabolic tradeoffs were detected in both subspecies. Furthermore, the genetic divergence of a nonsynonymous SNP (SOD-132) and five synonymous SNPs in other genes was identified and validated in these two subspecies, which possibly affects downstream functions and explains the aforementioned phenotypic variations. Our study demonstrates that differentiations in energy metabolism underlie the plasticity of adaptive divergence in two oyster subspecies and suggest C. gigas angulata with moderate phenotypic plasticity has higher adaptive potential to cope with exacerbated global warming.

KEYWORDS:

Crassostrea; gene expression; genetic variation; phenotypic plasticity; physiology; tradeoffs

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