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Stud Mycol. 2017 Sep;88:37-135. doi: 10.1016/j.simyco.2017.07.001. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium), and its occurrence in indoor environments and food.

Author information

1
Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, PR China.
2
Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, 128 01 Prague 2, Czech Republic.
4
Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic.
5
Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
6
Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada.
7
Biodiversity (Mycology), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6, Canada.
8
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary.
9
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Anadolu, 26470 Eskişehir, Turkey.
10
EMSL Analytical, Inc., 200 Route 130 North, Cinnaminson, NJ 08077, USA.
11
China General Microbiological Culture Collection Centre, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, PR China.

Abstract

Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly the genus Eurotium) includes xerophilic species with uniseriate conidiophores, globose to subglobose vesicles, green conidia and yellow, thin walled eurotium-like ascomata with hyaline, lenticular ascospores. In the present study, a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over the world were identified using calmodulin gene sequencing. Of these, 163 isolates were subjected to molecular phylogenetic analyses using sequences of ITS rDNA, partial β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) genes. Colony characteristics were documented on eight cultivation media, growth parameters at three incubation temperatures were recorded and micromorphology was examined using light microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy to illustrate and characterize each species. Many specific extrolites were extracted and identified from cultures, including echinulins, epiheveadrides, auroglaucins and anthraquinone bisanthrons, and to be consistent in strains of nearly all species. Other extrolites are species-specific, and thus valuable for identification. Several extrolites show antioxidant effects, which may be nutritionally beneficial in food and beverages. Important mycotoxins in the strict sense, such as sterigmatocystin, aflatoxins, ochratoxins, citrinin were not detected despite previous reports on their production in this section. Adopting a polyphasic approach, 31 species are recognized, including nine new species. ITS is highly conserved in this section and does not distinguish species. All species can be differentiated using CaM or RPB2 sequences. For BenA, Aspergillus brunneus and A. niveoglaucus share identical sequences. Ascospores and conidia morphology, growth rates at different temperatures are most useful characters for phenotypic species identification.

KEYWORDS:

A. aurantiacoflavus Hubka, A.J. Chen, Jurjević & Samson; A. caperatus A.J. Chen, Frisvad & Samson; A. endophyticus Hubka, A.J. Chen, & Samson; A. levisporus Hubka, A.J. Chen, Jurjević & Samson; A. porosus A.J. Chen, Frisvad & Samson; A. tamarindosoli A.J. Chen, Frisvad & Samson; A. teporis A.J. Chen, Frisvad & Samson; A. zutongqii A.J. Chen, Frisvad & Samson; Ascomycota; Aspergillaceae; Aspergillus aerius A.J. Chen, Frisvad & Samson; Aspergillus proliferans; Eurotiales; Eurotium amstelodami; Extrolites; Multi-gene phylogeny

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