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Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2017 Aug 31;18:87-113. doi: 10.1146/annurev-genom-091416-035314.

Recent Advancements in DNA Damage-Transcription Crosstalk and High-Resolution Mapping of DNA Breaks.

Author information

1
FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (IFOM), Milan 20139, Italy; email: fabrizio.dadda@ifom.eu.
2
Istituto di Genetica Molecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Pavia 27100, Italy.

Abstract

Until recently, DNA damage arising from physiological DNA metabolism was considered a detrimental by-product for cells. However, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that DNA damage could have a positive role in transcription activation. In particular, DNA damage has been detected in transcriptional elements following different stimuli. These physiological DNA breaks are thought to be instrumental for the correct expression of genomic loci through different mechanisms. In this regard, although a plethora of methods are available to precisely map transcribed regions and transcription start sites, commonly used techniques for mapping DNA breaks lack sufficient resolution and sensitivity to draw a robust correlation between DNA damage generation and transcription. Recently, however, several methods have been developed to map DNA damage at single-nucleotide resolution, thus providing a new set of tools to correlate DNA damage and transcription. Here, we review how DNA damage can positively regulate transcription initiation, the current techniques for mapping DNA breaks at high resolution, and how these techniques can benefit future studies of DNA damage and transcription.

KEYWORDS:

DNA damage; DNA damage response; DNA double-strand-break mapping; DNA repair; RNA; next-generation sequencing; transcription

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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