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Nat Commun. 2017 Aug 30;8(1):394. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00427-5.

High-quality monolayer superconductor NbSe2 grown by chemical vapour deposition.

Wang H1,2, Huang X3, Lin J4, Cui J3,5, Chen Y6, Zhu C1, Liu F1, Zeng Q1, Zhou J1, Yu P1, Wang X1, He H1, Tsang SH7, Gao W6, Suenaga K4, Ma F5, Yang C3,8, Lu L3,8, Yu T6, Teo EHT9,10, Liu G11, Liu Z12,13,14.

Author information

1
Centre for Programmable Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798, Singapore.
2
NOVITAS, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798, Singapore.
3
Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.
4
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, 305-8565, Japan.
5
Department of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang, 110036, China.
6
Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637371, Singapore.
7
Temasek Laboratories@NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798, Singapore.
8
Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing, 100871, China.
9
NOVITAS, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798, Singapore. htteo@ntu.edu.sg.
10
Temasek Laboratories@NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798, Singapore. htteo@ntu.edu.sg.
11
Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China. gtliu@iphy.ac.cn.
12
Centre for Programmable Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798, Singapore. z.liu@ntu.edu.sg.
13
NOVITAS, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798, Singapore. z.liu@ntu.edu.sg.
14
Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637371, Singapore. z.liu@ntu.edu.sg.

Abstract

The discovery of monolayer superconductors bears consequences for both fundamental physics and device applications. Currently, the growth of superconducting monolayers can only occur under ultrahigh vacuum and on specific lattice-matched or dangling bond-free substrates, to minimize environment- and substrate-induced disorders/defects. Such severe growth requirements limit the exploration of novel two-dimensional superconductivity and related nanodevices. Here we demonstrate the experimental realization of superconductivity in a chemical vapour deposition grown monolayer material-NbSe2. Atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope imaging reveals the atomic structure of the intrinsic point defects and grain boundaries in monolayer NbSe2, and confirms the low defect concentration in our high-quality film, which is the key to two-dimensional superconductivity. By using monolayer chemical vapour deposited graphene as a protective capping layer, thickness-dependent superconducting properties are observed in as-grown NbSe2 with a transition temperature increasing from 1.0 K in monolayer to 4.56 K in 10-layer.Two-dimensional superconductors will likely have applications not only in devices, but also in the study of fundamental physics. Here, Wang et al. demonstrate the CVD growth of superconducting NbSe2 on a variety of substrates, making these novel materials increasingly accessible.

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