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Nat Rev Immunol. 2018 Jan;18(1):62-76. doi: 10.1038/nri.2017.90. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Type 2 immunity in tissue repair and fibrosis.

Author information

1
Immunopathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852, USA.
2
Immunology Discovery, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.

Abstract

Type 2 immunity is characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, and this immune response is commonly observed in tissues during allergic inflammation or infection with helminth parasites. However, many of the key cell types associated with type 2 immune responses - including T helper 2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and IL-4- and IL-13-activated macrophages - also regulate tissue repair following injury. Indeed, these cell populations engage in crucial protective activity by reducing tissue inflammation and activating important tissue-regenerative mechanisms. Nevertheless, when type 2 cytokine-mediated repair processes become chronic, over-exuberant or dysregulated, they can also contribute to the development of pathological fibrosis in many different organ systems. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms by which type 2 immunity contributes to tissue regeneration and fibrosis following injury.

PMID:
28853443
DOI:
10.1038/nri.2017.90

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