Send to

Choose Destination
Cureus. 2017 Jun 28;9(6):e1403. doi: 10.7759/cureus.1403.

A Review on Antibiotic Resistance: Alarm Bells are Ringing.

Author information

Maternal and Child Health Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
Projahnmo Study Site, Johns Hopkin's University Bangladesh.
Health Consultant, Botane Skin Activates, Cape Town, South Africa.
Department of Internal Medicine, MGM Medical College, Navi Mumbai, India.
Nutrition and Clinical Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
Department of Pharmacology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh.


Antibiotics are the 'wonder drugs' to combat microbes. For decades, multiple varieties of antibiotics have not only been used for therapeutic purposes but practiced prophylactically across other industries such as agriculture and animal husbandry. Uncertainty has arisen, as microbes have become resistant to common antibiotics while the host remains unaware that antibiotic resistance has emerged. The aim of this review is to explore the origin, development, and the current state of antibiotic resistance, regulation, and challenges by examining available literature. We found that antibiotic resistance is increasing at an alarming rate. A growing list of infections i.e., pneumonia, tuberculosis, and gonorrhea are becoming harder and at times impossible to treat while antibiotics are becoming less effective. Antibiotic-resistant infections correlate with the level of antibiotic consumption. Non-judicial use of antibiotics is mostly responsible for making the microbes resistant. The antibiotic treatment repertoire for existing or emerging hard-to-treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections is limited, resulting in high morbidity and mortality report. This review article reiterates the optimal use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health to reduce antibiotic resistance. Evidence from the literature suggests that the knowledge regarding antibiotic resistance in the population is still scarce. Therefore, the need of educating patients and the public is essential to fight against the antimicrobial resistance battle.


antibiotic resistance; knowledge; rational use

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Publication type

Publication type

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center