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Quintessence Int. 2017;48(10):841-849. doi: 10.3290/j.qi.a38856.

Association between oral tori, occlusal force, and mandibular cortical index.



To assess possible associations between torus palatinus (TP), torus mandibularis (TM), occlusal force (OF), Klemetti's classes, mandibular cortical index (MCI), and sociodemographic variables in a selected sample of Jordanians. Previous studies have suggested that oral tori are benign anatomical variations probably related to several factors such as functional stress, gender predisposition, number of teeth present, and nutritional factors.


A total of 130 Jordanian adults were included. Shape, location, and appearance of tori were recorded from study casts. Size was measured using digital calipers. OF was recorded in Newtons. MCI and Klemetti's classification were assessed using panoramic radiographs. Data were statistically analyzed, and level of significance was set at P < .05.


The mean ± SD recorded OF was 524 ± 183 N in the tori group, compared to 417 ± 172 N in controls (P = .001). OF was significantly higher in males compared to females (P < .001), and was significantly higher in subjects with TM only (543 ± 201 N) (P < .001). TP and TM were predominantly more than 6 mm in size. The average OF in subjects with Klemetti class 3 was 418 ± 174 N, while OF in Klemetti class 1 subjects amounted to 535 ± 187 N (P = .043).


Average OF was significantly higher in tori subjects and in males (if compared to controls and female subjects, respectively). The presence of oral tori, Klemetti's classification, and MCI ratio seems to be positively correlated with OF.

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