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Horm Res Paediatr. 2017 Aug 28. doi: 10.1159/000479510. [Epub ahead of print]

Novel Insights in the Metabolic Syndrome in Childhood and Adolescence.

Author information

1
Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Centre for Pediatric Research, Department Woman and Child Health, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
2
LIFE Child Research Centre, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
3
Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
4
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
5
Institute of Clinical Chemistry, Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
6
Integrated Research and Treatment Center (IFB) AdiposityDiseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is recognized as an escalating major health risk in adults as well as in children and adolescents. Its prevalence ranges from 6 to 39% depending on the applied definition criteria. To date, there is no consensus on a MetS definition for children and adolescents. However, most authors agree on essential components such as glucose intolerance, central obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia; each representing a risk for cardiovascular disease. Recently, associations between MetS and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hyperuricemia, and sleep disturbances have emerged. Biomarkers like adipocytokines are a subject of current research as they are implicated in the pathogenesis of the MetS. Epigenetics and gestational programming, especially the role of microRNA, comprise a novel, rapidly developing and promising research focus on the topic of MetS. MicroRNAs are increasingly valued for potential roles in the diagnosis, stratification, and therapeutics of MetS. Early detection of risk factors, screening for metabolic disturbances, and the identification of new therapies are major aims to reduce morbidity and mortality related to MetS. Dietary modification and physical activity are currently the only adopted treatment approaches. Pharmacological therapies and bariatric surgery are still contradictory and, therefore, are only recommended in selected high-risk cases.

KEYWORDS:

Additional components; Adipocytokines; Epigenetics; Metabolic syndrome; MicroRNA

PMID:
28848168
DOI:
10.1159/000479510
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