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Gastroenterology. 2017 Dec;153(6):1674-1686. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.08.036. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

The Combination of Alcohol and Cigarette Smoke Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Cell Death in Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

Author information

1
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California; VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System/University of California, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address: Aurelia.Lugea@cshs.org.
2
VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System/University of California, Los Angeles, California.
3
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.
4
University of New South Wales, Liverpool, Australia; Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, Australia.
5
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California.
6
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California; VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System/University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Smoking, an independent risk factor for pancreatitis, accelerates the development of alcoholic pancreatitis. Alcohol feeding of mice induces up-regulation of spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s), which regulates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response and promotes cell survival upon ER stress. We examined whether smoking affects the adaptive mechanisms induced by alcohol and accelerates disorders of the ER in pancreatic acinar cells.

METHODS:

We studied the combined effects of ethanol (EtOH) and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on ER stress and cell death responses in mouse and human primary acini and the acinar cell line AR42J. Cells were incubated with EtOH (50 mmol/L), CSE (20-40 μg/mL), or both (CSE+EtOH), and analyzed by immunoblotting, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and cell death assays. Some cells were incubated with MKC-3946, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1 (ERN1, also called IRE1) that blocks XBP1s formation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric amounts of an EtOH-containing (Lieber-DeCarli) or control diet for 11 weeks and exposed to cigarette smoke or room air in an exposure chamber for 2 hours each day. During the last 3 weeks, a subset of rats received intravenous injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 3 mg/kg per week) to induce pancreatitis or saline (control). Pancreatic tissues were collected and analyzed by histology and immunostaining techniques.

RESULTS:

In AR42J and primary acini, CSE+EtOH induced cell death (necrosis and apoptosis), but neither agent alone had this effect. Cell death was associated with a significant decrease in expression of XBP1s. CSE+EtOH, but neither agent alone, slightly decreased adenosine triphosphate levels in AR42J cells, but induced oxidative stress and sustained activation (phosphorylation) of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3 (EIF2AK3, also called PERK) and increased protein levels of DNA damage inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3, also called CHOP). CHOP regulates transcription to promote apoptosis. Incubation of AR42J or primary mouse or human acinar cells with MKC-3946 reduced expression of XBP1s, increased levels of CHOP, and induced cell death. In rats fed an EtOH diet, exposure to cigarette smoke increased ER stress in acinar cells and sensitized the pancreas to LPS-induced pathology.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cigarette smoke promotes cell death and features of pancreatitis in EtOH-sensitized acinar cells by suppressing the adaptive unfolded protein response signaling pathway. It also activates ER stress pathways that promote acinar cell death.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; ER Stress; Pancreas; Smoking

PMID:
28847752
PMCID:
PMC5705421
DOI:
10.1053/j.gastro.2017.08.036
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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