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Am J Cardiol. 2017 Nov 1;120(9):1681-1688. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.07.068. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Evidence of Dietary Improvement and Preventable Costs of Cardiovascular Disease.

Author information

1
Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.
2
Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia.
3
Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address: gbw9@cdc.gov.

Abstract

We conducted a review to summarize preventable medical costs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with improved diet, as defined by the 2020 Strategic Impact Goal of the American Heart Association. We searched databases of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and ABI/INFORM to identify population-based studies published from January 1995 to December 2015 on CVD medical costs related to excess intake of salt/sodium or sugar-sweetened beverages, and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables, fish/fish oils/omega-3 fatty acids, or whole grains/fiber/dietary fiber. Based on the American Heart Association's secondary dietary metrics, we also searched the literature on inadequate intake of nuts and excess intake of processed meat and saturated fat. For each component, we evaluated the CVD cost savings if consumption levels were changed. The cost savings were adjusted into 2013 US dollars. Among 330 studies focusing on diet and economic consequences, 16 studies evaluated CVD costs associated with 1 or more dietary components: salt/sodium (n = 13), fruits and vegetables (n = 1), meat (n = 1), and saturated fat (n = 3). In the United States, reducing individual sodium intake to 2,300 mg/day from the current level could potentially save $1,990.9/person per year for hypertension treatment, based on a simulation study. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables from <0.5 cup/day to >1.5 cups/day could save $1,568.0/person per year in treatment costs for CVD, based on a cohort study. Potential CVD cost savings associated with diet improvement are substantial. Interventions for reducing sodium intake and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption could be viable means to alleviate the increasing national medical expenditures.

PMID:
28847593
DOI:
10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.07.068
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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