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Annu Rev Med. 2018 Jan 29;69:395-408. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-050715-105122. Epub 2017 Aug 28.

Zika, Chikungunya, and Other Emerging Vector-Borne Viral Diseases.

Weaver SC1,2,3, Charlier C4,5,6,7, Vasilakis N1,3, Lecuit M4,5,6,7.

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Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA; email: ,
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA.
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA.
Institut Pasteur, Biology of Infection Unit, INSERM Unité 1117, 75006 Paris, France; email: ,
Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75006 Paris, France.
Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 75015 Paris, France.
Institut Imagine, 75015 Paris, France.


Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have a long history of emerging to infect humans, but during recent decades, they have been spreading more widely and affecting larger populations. This is due to several factors, including increased air travel and uncontrolled mosquito vector populations. Emergence can involve simple spillover from enzootic (wildlife) cycles, as in the case of West Nile virus accompanying geographic expansion into the Americas; secondary amplification in domesticated animals, as seen with Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Rift Valley fever viruses; and urbanization, in which humans become the amplification hosts and peridomestic mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, mediate human-to-human transmission. Dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have undergone such urban emergence. We focus mainly on the latter two, which are recent arrivals in the Western Hemisphere. We also discuss a few other viruses with the potential to emerge through all of these mechanisms.


Zika; arbovirus; chikungunya; dengue; mosquito; yellow fever

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