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Clin Psychol Psychother. 2017 Nov;24(6):O1547-O1561. doi: 10.1002/cpp.2115. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

The Music Therapy Session Assessment Scale (MT-SAS): Validation of a new tool for music therapy process evaluation.

Author information

1
Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri, Music Therapy Laboratory, Pavia, Italy.
2
Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Section of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
3
Department of Psychology, Catholic University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
4
Fondazione Istituto Ospedaliero di Sospiro, Cremona, Italy.
5
Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Master in Music Therapy, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
6
Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Occupational Medicine Section, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Music therapy (MT) interventions are aimed at creating and developing a relationship between patient and therapist. However, there is a lack of validated observational instruments to consistently evaluate the MT process.

AIM:

The purpose of this study was the validation of Music Therapy Session Assessment Scale (MT-SAS), designed to assess the relationship between therapist and patient during active MT sessions.

METHODS:

Videotapes of a single 30-min session per patient were considered. A pilot study on the videotapes of 10 patients was carried out to help refine the items, define the scoring system and improve inter-rater reliability among the five raters. Then, a validation study on 100 patients with different clinical conditions was carried out. The Italian MT-SAS was used throughout the process, although we also provide an English translation.

RESULTS:

The final scale consisted of 7 binary items accounting for eye contact, countenance, and nonverbal and sound-music communication. In the pilot study, raters were found to share an acceptable level of agreement in their assessments. Explorative factorial analysis disclosed a single homogeneous factor including 6 items (thus supporting an ordinal total score), with only the item about eye contact being unrelated to the others. Moreover, the existence of 2 different archetypal profiles of attuned and disattuned behaviours was highlighted through multiple correspondence analysis.

CONCLUSIONS:

As suggested by the consistent results of 2 different analyses, MT-SAS is a reliable tool that globally evaluates sonorous-musical and nonverbal behaviours related to emotional attunement and empathetic relationship between patient and therapist during active MT sessions.

KEYWORDS:

assessment; communicative behaviours; music therapy; music therapy process; relationship

PMID:
28840630
DOI:
10.1002/cpp.2115
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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