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Endocrine. 2017 Aug 23. doi: 10.1007/s12020-017-1394-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Association of obesity and diabetes with thyroid nodules.

Author information

1
Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica (DIBIMIS) - University of Palermo (Italy), Via del Vespro 129, 90127, Palermo, Italy. silbus@tin.it.
2
Laboratorio di Metabolismo e Nutrizione Clinica - AOU Policlinico "P. Giaccone", Palermo, Italy. silbus@tin.it.
3
Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno Infantile - University of Palermo, (Italy) - AOU Policlinico "P. Giaccone", Palermo, Italy.
4
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche, Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF), University of Palermo (Italy), Palermo, Italy.
5
Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, University of Catania (Italy), Catania, Italy.
6
Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica (DIBIMIS) - University of Palermo (Italy), Via del Vespro 129, 90127, Palermo, Italy.
7
Laboratorio di Metabolismo e Nutrizione Clinica - AOU Policlinico "P. Giaccone", Palermo, Italy.
8
Sezione di Malattie Cardio-Respiratorie ed Endocrino-Metaboliche, Roma, Italy.

Abstract

AIM:

There are conflicting data concerning the possibility that obesity and diabetes raise the risk of thyroid nodules. The incidence of thyroid nodules is increasing, as is that of obesity and diabetes; therefore, understanding whether these metabolic and nutritional disorders influence nodular thyroid disease is important for organizing prevention strategies. This study investigated the association between thyroid nodules, obesity, diabetes, and dietary habits.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A cohort of randomly selected adults (455 males, 746 females; age: 18-90 years) living in Palermo (Italy), a mild iodine deficiency area, was cross-sectionally investigated. Participants underwent high-resolution ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid, and answered a food frequency questionnaire. Laboratory blood measurements were obtained in 587 participants.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Thyroid nodules were detected in 475 (39.5%) participants. The number of thyroid nodules was correlated with age (r = 0.19; P < 0.001), gender (r = 0.08; P = 0.005), and body mass index (r = 0.07; P = 0.02). No significant correlation was observed between the number of nodules and glycated hemoglobin, serum insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Age-adjusted and gender-adjusted prevalence of both overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes of each group of participants divided according to the number of nodules significantly increased with the number of nodules (P < 0.05 in both cases). The group of participants with nodules exhibited a significantly lower age-adjusted and gender-adjusted habitual intake of milk (P = 0.02). Multivariate regression analysis showed that age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, and habitual consumption of milk were independently correlated with presence of thyroid nodules.

CONCLUSION:

This study seems to indicate that an association exists between obesity, diabetes, and thyroid nodules.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes; Diet; Milk; Obesity; Thyroid nodules

PMID:
28836113
DOI:
10.1007/s12020-017-1394-2
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