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Nat Commun. 2017 Aug 24;8(1):339. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00431-9.

Fast kinetics of magnesium monochloride cations in interlayer-expanded titanium disulfide for magnesium rechargeable batteries.

Author information

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering & Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, TX, 77204, USA.
2
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37235, USA.
3
Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831, USA.
4
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.
5
Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.
6
X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, 60565, USA.
7
Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 60439, USA.
8
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering & Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, TX, 77204, USA. yyao4@uh.edu.
9
Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX, 77204, USA. yyao4@uh.edu.

Abstract

Magnesium rechargeable batteries potentially offer high-energy density, safety, and low cost due to the ability to employ divalent, dendrite-free, and earth-abundant magnesium metal anode. Despite recent progress, further development remains stagnated mainly due to the sluggish scission of magnesium-chloride bond and slow diffusion of divalent magnesium cations in cathodes. Here we report a battery chemistry that utilizes magnesium monochloride cations in expanded titanium disulfide. Combined theoretical modeling, spectroscopic analysis, and electrochemical study reveal fast diffusion kinetics of magnesium monochloride cations without scission of magnesium-chloride bond. The battery demonstrates the reversible intercalation of 1 and 1.7 magnesium monochloride cations per titanium at 25 and 60 °C, respectively, corresponding to up to 400 mAh g-1 capacity based on the mass of titanium disulfide. The large capacity accompanies with excellent rate and cycling performances even at room temperature, opening up possibilities for a variety of effective intercalation hosts for multivalent-ion batteries.Magnesium rechargeable batteries potentially offer high-energy density, safety, and low cost. Here the authors show a battery that reversibly intercalates magnesium monochloride cations with excellent rate and cycle performances in addition to the large capacity.

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