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J Virol. 2017 Oct 27;91(22). pii: e00877-17. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00877-17. Print 2017 Nov 15.

The K186E Amino Acid Substitution in the Canine Influenza Virus H3N8 NS1 Protein Restores Its Ability To Inhibit Host Gene Expression.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.
2
MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
3
David Smith Center for Immunology and Vaccine Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.
4
Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
5
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA luis_martinez@urmc.rochester.edu.

Abstract

Canine influenza viruses (CIVs) are the causative agents of canine influenza, a contagious respiratory disease in dogs, and include the equine-origin H3N8 and the avian-origin H3N2 viruses. Influenza A virus (IAV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor essential for counteracting the innate immune response. Here, we evaluated the ability of H3N8 CIV NS1 to inhibit host innate immune responses. We found that H3N8 CIV NS1 was able to efficiently counteract interferon (IFN) responses but was unable to block general gene expression in human or canine cells. Such ability was restored by a single amino acid substitution in position 186 (K186E) that resulted in NS1 binding to the 30-kDa subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF30), a cellular protein involved in pre-mRNA processing. We also examined the frequency distribution of K186 and E186 among H3N8 CIVs and equine influenza viruses (EIVs), the ancestors of H3N8 CIV, and experimentally determined the impact of amino acid 186 in the ability of different CIV and EIV NS1s to inhibit general gene expression. In all cases, the presence of E186 was responsible for the control of host gene expression. In contrast, the NS1 protein of H3N2 CIV harbors E186 and blocks general gene expression in canine cells. Altogether, our results confirm previous studies on the strain-dependent ability of NS1 to block general gene expression. Moreover, the observed polymorphism on amino acid 186 between H3N8 and H3N2 CIVs might be the result of adaptive changes acquired during long-term circulation of avian-origin IAVs in mammals.IMPORTANCE Canine influenza is a respiratory disease of dogs caused by two CIV subtypes, the H3N8 and H3N2 viruses, of equine and avian origins, respectively. Influenza NS1 is the main viral factor responsible for the control of host innate immune responses, and changes in NS1 can play an important role in host adaptation. Here we assessed the ability of H3N8 CIV NS1 to inhibit host innate immune responses and gene expression. The H3N8 CIV NS1 did not block host gene expression, but this activity was restored by a single amino acid substitution (K186E), which was responsible for NS1 binding to the host factor CPSF30. In contrast, the H3N2 CIV NS1, which contains E186, blocks general gene expression. Our results suggest that the ability to block host gene expression is not required for influenza virus replication in mammals but might be important in the long-term adaptation of avian-origin influenza viruses to mammals.

KEYWORDS:

host response; host-pathogen interactions; influenza; interferons

PMID:
28835506
PMCID:
PMC5660486
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.00877-17
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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