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Pharmacotherapy. 2017 Oct;37(10):1309-1321. doi: 10.1002/phar.2017.

Repurposing Valproate, Enteral Clonidine, and Phenobarbital for Comfort in Adult ICU Patients: A Literature Review with Practical Considerations.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy, Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine.
2
Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
3
Department of Pharmacy, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah.
4
Neurosciences Institute, Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, Utah.
5
Pharmacotherapy, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, Utah.
6
Roseman University College of Pharmacy, South Jordan, Utah.
7
Department of Critical Care Medicine, Neuroscience Institute, Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine.

Abstract

Provision of adequate sedation is a fundamental part of caring for critically ill patients. Propofol, dexmedetomidine, and benzodiazepines are the most commonly administered sedative medications for adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). These agents are limited by adverse effects, need for a monitored environment for safe administration, and lack of universal effectiveness. Increased interest has recently been expressed about repurposing older pharmacologic agents for patient comfort in the ICU. Valproate, enteral clonidine, and phenobarbital are three agents with increasing evidence supporting their use. Potential benefits associated with their utilization are cost minimization and safe administration after transition out of the ICU. This literature review describes the historical context, pharmacologic characteristics, supportive data, and practical considerations associated with the administration of these agents for comfort in critically ill adult patients.

KEYWORDS:

agitation; clonidine; critical care; delirium; divalproex; phenobarbital; sedation; valproate; valproic acid

PMID:
28833346
DOI:
10.1002/phar.2017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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