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Nat Immunol. 2017 Aug 22;18(9):962-972. doi: 10.1038/ni.3771.

Gene regulation in the immune system by long noncoding RNAs.

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Center for Personal Dynamic Regulomes and Program in Epithelial Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.
Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.


Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical regulators of gene expression in the immune system. Studies have shown that lncRNAs are expressed in a highly lineage-specific manner and control the differentiation and function of innate and adaptive cell types. In this Review, we focus on mechanisms used by lncRNAs to regulate genes encoding products involved in the immune response, including direct interactions with chromatin, RNA and proteins. In addition, we address new areas of lncRNA biology, such as the functions of enhancer RNAs, circular RNAs and chemical modifications to RNA in cellular processes. We emphasize critical gaps in knowledge and future prospects for the roles of lncRNAs in the immune system and autoimmune disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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