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Pharmacognosy Res. 2017 Jul-Sep;9(3):282-286. doi: 10.4103/pr.pr_69_16.

The Potency of Red Seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) Extracts as Hepatoprotector on Lead Acetate-induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hang Tuah University, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia.
2
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Airlangga University, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Lead is one of the most toxic metals, producing severe organ damage in animals and humans. Oxidative stress is reported to play an important role in lead acetate-induced liver injury.

AIM:

This study was carried out to investigate the role of ethanol extract of Eucheuma cottonii in protecting against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity in male mice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The sample used fifty male mice which were divided into five groups: negative control (mice were given daily with Aquadest); positive control (mice were given daily with lead acetate 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) orally once in a day for 21 days); and the treatment group (mice were given E. cottonii extracts 200 mg, 400 mg, and 800 mg/kg BW orally once in a day for 25 days, and on the 4th day, were given lead acetate 20 mg/kg BW 1 h after E. cottonii extract administration for 21 days). On day 25, the levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured. The data of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, MDA, SOD, and GPx were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by least significant difference test.

RESULTS:

The results showed that oral administration of lead acetate 20 mg/kg BW for 21 days resulted in a significant increase in SGOT, SGPT, ALP, and MDA levels. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in SOD and GPx levels. Treatment with E. cottonii extracts of 800 mg/kg BW but not with 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the elevated SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and MDA levels as compared to positive control group. Treatment with E. cottonii extracts of 800 mg/kg BW also showed a significant increase in SOD and GPx levels as compared to positive control group. Treating mice with lead acetate showed different histopathological changes such as loss of the normal structure of hepatic cells, blood congestion, and fatty degeneration whereas animals treated with lead acetate and E. cottonii extracts showed an improvement in these changes and the tissue appeared with normal structures.

CONCLUSION:

It can be concluded that E. cottonii extracts could be a potent natural product and can provide a promising hepatoprotective effect against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

SUMMARY:

In summary, Oxidative stress reported to play an important role in lead acetate induced liver injury. The lead acetate treatment significantly increased the SGOT, SGPT, ALP, MDA, and decreased the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) in liver. The inhibition of antioxidant enzymes will increase free radicals in liver tissues and might induce liver injury in mice. The presence of ethanol extract of Eucheuma cottonii with lead acetate showed protective effects as attenuating lead acetate against its liver toxicity, and this may be due to the activity of ethanol extract of Eucheuma cottonii as antioxidant. The antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) were increased, and MDA, SGOT, SGPT, ALP were decreased after ethanol extract of Eucheuma cottonii administration. The enzymatic activities (SOD and GPx) and MDA in mice can be used as biomarkers of heavy metal toxicity such as lead acetate. Histopathological view of liver sections in the lead acetate treated group showed the liver damage, as compared to the negative control group. However, administration of ethanol extract of Eucheuma cottonii significantly improved the histopathological in liver of lead acetate-treated mice. From the results of this study we concluded that the ethanol extract of Eucheuma cottonii could be a potent natural product provide a promising protective effect against lead acetate induced liver toxicity in mice. Abbreviations Used: SGOT: Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase, SGPT: Serum Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase, ALP: Alkaline Phosphatase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, SOD: Superoxide Dismutase, GPx: Glutathione Peroxidase.

KEYWORDS:

Biochemical assays; Eucheuma cottonii extracts; hepatoprotector; lead acetate

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