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Pediatrics. 2017 Sep;140(3). pii: e20171904. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-1904. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents.

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Dr. Robert O. Hickman Endowed Chair in Pediatric Nephrology, Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington and Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington;
Departments of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Center for Clinical Informatics Research and Education, Case Western Reserve University and MetroHealth System, Cleveland, Ohio.
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.
Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Missouri-Kansas City and Children's Mercy Integrated Care Solutions, Kansas City, Missouri.
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado-Denver and Pediatrician in Chief, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.
Director, Preventive Cardiology Clinic, Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia and British Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Consultant, American Academy of Pediatrics, Washington, District of Columbia.
Cardiology Division Head, Nemours Cardiac Center, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware.
National Pediatric Blood Pressure Awareness Foundation, Prairieville, Louisiana.
Departments of Pediatrics and Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education, University of Washington, University of Washington Medicine and Information Technology Services, and Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington.
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia.
Associate Director, General Academic Pediatric Fellowship, Staff Physician, Boston's Children's Hospital Primary Care at Longwood, Instructor, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas, Houston, Texas.
Pediatric Education, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Shadyside Family Medicine Residency, Clinical Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Division of Molecular Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and.
Preventive Cardiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.


These pediatric hypertension guidelines are an update to the 2004 "Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents." Significant changes in these guidelines include (1) the replacement of the term "prehypertension" with the term "elevated blood pressure," (2) new normative pediatric blood pressure (BP) tables based on normal-weight children, (3) a simplified screening table for identifying BPs needing further evaluation, (4) a simplified BP classification in adolescents ≥13 years of age that aligns with the forthcoming American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology adult BP guidelines, (5) a more limited recommendation to perform screening BP measurements only at preventive care visits, (6) streamlined recommendations on the initial evaluation and management of abnormal BPs, (7) an expanded role for ambulatory BP monitoring in the diagnosis and management of pediatric hypertension, and (8) revised recommendations on when to perform echocardiography in the evaluation of newly diagnosed hypertensive pediatric patients (generally only before medication initiation), along with a revised definition of left ventricular hypertrophy. These guidelines include 30 Key Action Statements and 27 additional recommendations derived from a comprehensive review of almost 15 000 published articles between January 2004 and July 2016. Each Key Action Statement includes level of evidence, benefit-harm relationship, and strength of recommendation. This clinical practice guideline, endorsed by the American Heart Association, is intended to foster a patient- and family-centered approach to care, reduce unnecessary and costly medical interventions, improve patient diagnoses and outcomes, support implementation, and provide direction for future research.

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